Friday 28 October 2016

Nonlinear Covariation Analysis (Müller & Sternad, 2003)

I have been working my way through some analyses that fall under the idea of the motor abundance hypothesis (Latash, 2012) - the idea that motor control does not work to produce a single, optimal movement trajectory, but rather works to produce a particular task goal, or outcome. Motor control preserves function, and not structure; it exhibits degeneracy. So far I have looked at uncontrolled manifold analysis here and here, and stochastic optimal control theory here

This post will review nonlinear covariation analysis developed by Müller & Sternad (2003). This purports to address several issues with UCM.

Thursday 13 October 2016

Optimal Feedback Control and Its Relation to Uncontrolled Manifold Analysis

Motor control theories must propose solutions to the degrees of freedom problem, which is the fact that the movement system has more ways to move than are ever required to perform a given task. This creates a problem for action selection (which of the many ways to do something do you choose?) and a problem for action control (how do you create stable, repeatable movements using such a high dimensional system?).

Different theories have different hypotheses about what the system explicitly controls or works to achieve, and what is left to emerge (i.e. happen reliably without explicitly being specified in the control architecture). They are typically about controlling trajectory features such as jerk. Are you working to make movements smooth, or does smoothness pop out as a side effect of controlling something else? This approach solves the degrees of freedom control problem by simply requiring the system to implement a specific trajectory that satisfies some constraint on that feature you are controlling (e.g. by minimising jerk; Flash & Hogan, 1985). They internally replace the solutions afforded by the environment with one desired trajectory

Todorov and Jordan (2002a, 2002b; thanks to Andrew Pruszynski for the tip!) propose that the system is not optimising performance, but the control architecture. This is kind of a cool way to frame the problem and it leads them to an analysis that is very similar in spirit to uncontrolled manifold analysis (UCM) and to the framework of motor abundance. In these papers, they apply the mathematics of stochastic optimal feedback control theory and propose that working to produce optimal control strategies is a general principle of motor control from which many common phenomena naturally emerge. They contrast this account (both theoretically and in simulations) to the more typical 'trajectory planning' models.

The reason this ends up in UCM territory is that it turns out, whenever it's possible, the optimal control strategy for solving motor coordination problems is a feedback control system in which control is deployed only as required. Specifically, you only work to control task-relevant variability, noise which is dragging you away from performing the task successfully. The net result is the UCM patterns; task-relevant variability (V-ORT) is clamped down by a feedback control process and task-irrelevant variability (V-UCM) is left alone. The solution to the degrees of freedom control problem is to simply deploy control strategically with respect to the task; no degrees of freedom must be 'frozen out' and the variability can be recruited at any point in the process if it suddenly becomes useful - you can be flexible.

What follows is me working through this paper and trying to figure out how exactly this relates to the conceptually similar UCM. If anyone knows the maths of these methods and can help with this, I would appreciate it!

Tuesday 11 October 2016

What Can You Do With Uncontrolled Manifold Analysis?

There is generally more than one way to perform a task (the ‘bliss of motor abundance’) and so it’s possible for a movement to incur a little noise that doesn’t actually affect performance that much.
Uncontrolled manifold analysis (UCM) is a technique for analysing a high-dimensional movement data set with respect to the outcome or outcomes that count as successful behaviour in a task. It measures the variability in the data with respect to the outcome and decomposes it into variability that, if unchecked, would lead to an error and variability that still allows a successful movement.

In the analysis, variability that doesn’t stop successful behaviour lives on a manifold. This is the subspace of the values of the performance variable(s) that lead to success. When variability in one movement variables (e.g. a joint angle, or a force output) is offset by a compensation in one or more other variables that keeps you in that subspace, these variables are in a synergy and this means the variability does not have to be actively controlled. This subspace therefore becomes the uncontrolled manifold. Variability that takes you off the manifold takes you into a region of the parameter space that leads to failure, so it needs to be fixed. This is noise that needs control.

With practice, both kinds of variability tend to decrease. You produce particular versions of the movement more reliably (decreasing manifold variance, or V-UCM) and you get better at staying on the manifold (decreasing variance living in the subspace orthogonal to the UCM, or V-ORT). V-UCM decreases less, however (motor abundance) so the ratio between the two changes. Practice therefore makes you better at the movement, and better at allocating your control of the movement to the problematic variability. This helps address the degrees of freedom control problem.

My current interest is figuring out the details of this and related analyses in order to apply it to throwing. For this post, I will therefore review a paper using UCM on throwing and pull out the things I want to be able to do. All and any advice welcome!